All that Glitters may not be Perceived Gold. When and How Authentic leadership can be ineffective in power distance cultures Authentic leadership in power distance cultures

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Erum Ishaq
Ramsha Zakariya
Bushra Ishaq


Considering the critical role of effective leaders towards ensuring organizational success, current study attempt to revisit the effectiveness of authentic leadership in a power distance culture. More specifically, current study considers the contingency role of power distance culture over the relationship between authentic leadership and its effectiveness through LMX and perceived impression management. For this purpose, data were collected from public sector organizations in Pakistan comprising 31 managers and 202 respective employees.  Multilevel path analyses provided reasonable support for our hypotheses. It is demonstrated that authentic leadership is positively associated to leaders’ effectiveness and LMX. Moreover, power distance culture conditions the relationship between the authentic leadership and its effectiveness through perceived use of impression management tactics and LMX in a way that relationship gets weaker when power distance is high. Both practical and theoretical implications of this perspective are discussed.

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How to Cite
Ishaq, E., Zakariya, R., & Ishaq, B. (2023). All that Glitters may not be Perceived Gold. When and How Authentic leadership can be ineffective in power distance cultures: Authentic leadership in power distance cultures. Journal of Workplace Behavior, 4(2), 46–59. Retrieved from
Author Biographies

Erum Ishaq, Bahria Business School, Bahria University Islamabad Pakistan.

Dr. Erum Ishaq serves as an Assistant Professor of HRM and Organizational Behavior at Bahria Business School Bahria University. With a PhD in management sciences and membership in the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (UK), she possesses a diverse background encompassing over 18 years of combined academic and industrial experience. Her research work has garnered recognition and has been published in esteemed international journals, with a focus on leadership and the transformation of human behavior. Dr. Ishaq's expertise and interests not only drive the advancement of existing knowledge concerning human behavior dynamics in the workplace but also contribute significantly to enhancing organizational effectiveness through effective people management practices.

Ramsha Zakariya, Department of Management Sciences National University of Modern Languages Islamabad Pakistan.

Ramsha Zakariya is lecturer at Department of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad. She is a PhD scholar of management sciences. She has published in a number of research journals including employee relations, international journal of human resource management and journal of intellectual capital among others. Her area of expertise in research is quantitative data analysis techniques and software. Her research interests are leadership, employee prosocial behaviors, creativity and performance.  

Bushra Ishaq, Foundation University, Rawalpindi Pakistan.

Bushra Ishaq is a highly accomplished and dynamic professional with a profound expertise in research. She earned her Master of Science in Media Studies from Riphah University and Masters in Graphic Design from Punjab University Lahore, where she demonstrated exceptional aptitude and passion for understanding the intricate interplay between media, culture, design and technology. As an educator, Bushra Ishaq has been instrumental in shaping the minds of future media professionals and researchers.